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shierasea:

Badass Queens 
     Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator; Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ

Cleopatra, (born 69 BC—died 30 BC),ruled ancient Egypt as co-regent (first with her two younger brothers and then with her son) for almost three decades. She became the last in a dynasty of Macedonian rulers founded by Ptolemy, who served as general under Alexander the Great during his conquest of Egypt in 332 B.C.

" For her beauty, as we are told, was in itself not altogether incomparable, nor such as to strike those who saw her; but converse with her had an irresistible charm, and her presence, combined with the persuasiveness of her discourse and the character which was somehow diffused about her behaviour towards others, had something stimulating about it. There was sweetness also in the tones of her voice; and her tongue, like an instrument of many strings, she could readily turn to whatever language she pleased…"(x)
                   - Plutarch, Life of Antony (XXVII.2-3)

THE LAST PHARAOH

 Cleopatra’s father was King Ptolemy XII. Little is known about Cleopatra’s mother, but some speculation presumes she may have been her father’s sister, Cleopatra V Tryphaena. Debate also surrounds Cleopatra’s ethnicity. While it was believed for a long time that she was of Greek descent, some speculate that her lineage may have been black African. In 51 B.C., Ptolemy XII died, leaving the throne to 18-year-old Cleopatra and her brother, the 10-year-old Ptolemy XIII. It is likely that the two siblings married, as was customary at the time. Over the next few years Egypt struggled to face down a number of issues, from an unhealthy economy to floods to famine. Political turmoil also shaped this period. Soon after they assumed power, complications arose between Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIII. Eventually Cleopatra fled to Syria, where she assembled an army to defeat her rival in order to declare the throne for herself. In 48, she returned to Egypt with her military might and faced her brother at Pelusium, located on the empire’s eastern edge.Around this same time, the civil war between Julius Caesar and Pompey was consuming Rome. Pompey eventually sought refuge in Egypt, but on orders by Ptolemy, was killed. In pursuit of his rival, Julius Caesar followed Pompey into Egypt, where he met and eventually fell in love with Cleopatra. In Caesar, Cleopatra now had access to enough military muscle to dethrone her brother and solidify her grip on Egypt as sole ruler. Following Caesar’s defeat of Ptolemy’s forces at the Battle of the Nile, Caesar restored Cleopatra to the throne. Soon after, Ptolemy XIII fled and drowned in the Nile. In 47 B.C. Cleopatra bore Caesar a son, whom she named Caesarion. However, Caesar never acknowledged the boy was his offspring, and historical debate continues over whether he was indeed his father Cleopatra eventually followed Caesar back to Rome, but returned to Egypt in 44 B.C., following his assassination. In 41 B.C., Marc Antony, part of the Second Triumvirate that ruled Rome following the murder of Caesar, sent for Cleopatra so that she could answer questions about her allegiance to the empire’s fallen leader.Cleopatra agreed to his request and made a lavish entrance into the city of Tarsus. Captivated by her beauty and personality, Antony plunged into a love affair with Cleopatra that would eventually produce three children, including twins named Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene.Just like Caesar before him, Antony was embroiled in a battle over Rome’s control. His rival was Caesar’s own great-nephew, Gaius Octavius, also known as Octavian (who became the future Emperor Caesar Augustus). Gaius Octavius, along with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, rounded out the Second Triumvirate. Antony, who presided over Rome’s eastern areas, detested Gaius Octavius and saw in Cleopatra the chance for financial and military support to secure his own rule over the empire.Cleopatra had her own motivations, as well. In exchange for her help, she sought the return of Egypt’s eastern empire, which included large areas of Lebanon and Syria.Antony antagonized his rival by declaring Caesarion as Caesar’s real son and legal heir, rather than Octavian, whom the revered Roman leader had adopted. Octavian, however, fought back, declaring he’d seized Antony’s will, and told the Roman people that Antony had turned over Roman possessions to Cleopatra and that there were plans to make Alexandria the Roman capital.In the year 31 B.C., Cleopatra and Antony combined armies to try to defeat Octavian in a raging sea battle at Actium, on Greece’s west coast. The clash, however, proved to be a costly defeat for the Egyptians, forcing Antony and Cleopatra to flee back to Egypt.Antony soon returned to the battlefield, where he was falsely informed that Cleopatra had died. Upon hearing the news, the despondent Roman leader committed suicide by stabbing himself. Cleopatra followed her lover’s demise by ending her life as well by being bitten by an Egyptian cobra. She died on August 12, 30 B.C. The two were buried together, as they had wished, and Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire.(x)

Her story resonates, too, because of what she represented in such a male-dominated society. In an era when Egypt was roiled by internal and external battles, Cleopatra held the country together and proved to be as powerful a leader as any of her male counterparts.


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stormbornvalkyrie:

  Daenerys Targaryen in Game of Thrones Season 4 


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oberynsmartell:

sansa stark after joffrey and margaery’s beautiful wedding

image



margaery tyrell (via theladymonsters)

#GOLD DIGGER PLAYS SOFTLY IN DISTANCE

lol here’s one widow who won’t be wailing

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You know, of course, the story of the marriage between Njord and Skadi? Skadi was a giantess. Her father was killed. […] The gods conferred and agreed that Skadi could choose a husband among them, but they made one condition: that she chose him by his feet. And Skadi lost no time in choosing the most shapely pair of feet, believing they would naturally belong to Balder, the most handsome of the gods. But they belonged to the God Njord, the lord of seafarers and sea harvests. His skin was old and weathered.


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Tonight on Game of Thrones 4.01 [x]

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(Source: gameofthronesdaily)


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Cartimandua was a 1st-century queen of the Brigantes, a Celtic people living in what is now northern England. She came to power around the time of the Roman conquest of Britain, and formed a large tribal agglomeration that became loyal to Rome. She appears to have been widely influential in early Roman Britain.

Our only knowledge of Cartimandua is through the writings of Roman author Tacitus, who presents her in a negative light. He writes of her treacherous role in the capture of Caratacus, who had sought her protection, her “self-indulgence, her sexual impropriety in rejecting her husband in favour of a common soldier, and her “cunning strategems” during her rule. However, he also consistently names her as a queen, the only one such known in early Roman Britain.

Boudica was ruler of the Iceni people, a Celtic tribe, who led an uprising against the occupying forces of the Roman Empire. In AD 60 or 61, while the Roman governor Gaius Paulinus was leading a campaign on the island of Anglesey off the northwest coast of Wales, Boudica led the Iceni as well as the Trinovantes and others in revolt.

Boudica led 100,000 Iceni, Trinovantes and others to fight the Roman Legio IX Hispana and burned and destroyed several settlements in Britannia. An estimated 70,000–80,000 Romans and British were killed in the three cities by those led by Boudica. The crisis caused the Emperor Nero to consider withdrawing all Roman forces from Britain, but Suetonius’s eventual victory over Boudica confirmed Roman control of the province. Boudica’s fate is not known.

The two women are the only known female Celtic rulers of the age.

(Source: apriki)


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